Intervertebral discs

Components of the intervertebral disc, Fluid content of the nucleus pulposus and changes with trauma

Figure. The adult vertebral column and typical vertebrae in each region, lateral views. There are at least 24 intervertebral discs interposed between the vertebral bodies: six in the cervical, twelve in the thoracic and five in the lumbar region, with one between the sacrum and coccyx. (Additional discs may be present between fused sacral segments.) The discs account for approximately one-quarter of the total length of the vertebral column, and are primarily responsible for the presence of the various curvatures.

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Understanding Spinal Anatomy: Intervertebral Discs

Between each vertebral body is a cushion called an intervertebral disc. Each disc absorbs the stress and shock the body incurs during movement and prevents the vertebrae from grinding against one another. The intervertebral discs are the largest structures in the body without a vascular supply. By means of osmosis, each disc absorbs needed nutrients.   Each disc is made up of two parts: the annulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus.   Annulus Fibrosis The annulus is a sturdy tire-like structure that encases a

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Fibrocystic breasts

Fibrocystic breast illustrating fibroadenoma

ICD-9: 610.1 Description Fibrocystic breasts are breasts with palpable lumps or cysts that fluctuate in size with the menstrual cycle. The condition is seen more frequently in women ages 30 to 55 and rarely after menopause. Fibrocystic breast tissue exhibits fluid-filled round or oval cysts, fibrosis, and hyperplasia of the cells lining the milk ducts or lobules of the breast. Fibrocystic breasts are fairly common; more than half of women experience fibrocystic breast changes at some point in their lives.

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Fibrocystic Breast Disease: Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment

Understanding Fibrocystic Breast Disease Fibrocystic breast disease, like fibroids, PMS, and menstrual irregularities are all parts of the continuum of estrogen excess in your body. Fibrocystic breast disease tends to be one of the first symptoms of estrogen dominance. It can affect women of 20 to 50 years and even teenagers. Let’s take a step back so that we can understand the concept of fibrocystic breast disease. When you are growing, estrogen is very necessary. It is most of the time

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Fibrosis and Simple Cysts in the Breast

Many breast lumps turn out to be caused by fibrosis and/or cysts, which are non-cancerous (benign) changes in breast tissue that happen in many women at some time in their lives. These changes are sometimes called fibrocystic changes, and used to be called fibrocystic disease. Fibrosis and/or cysts are most common in women of child-bearing age, but they can affect women of any age. They may be found in different parts of the breast and in both breasts at the same time. Fibrosis Fibrosis

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Fibrocystic breasts: Symptoms and causes

Overview Fibrocystic breast changes. Fibrocystic breast changes lead to the development of fluid-filled round or oval sacs (cysts) and more prominent scar-like (fibrous) tissue, which can make breasts feel tender, lumpy or ropy. Fibrocystic breasts are composed of tissue that feels lumpy or rope-like in texture. Doctors call this nodular or glandular breast tissue. It’s not at all uncommon to have fibrocystic breasts. More than half of women experience fibrocystic breast changes at some point in their lives. In fact,

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Predisposing Factors

A predisposing factor is a condition or situation that may make a person more at risk or susceptible to disease. Some ⚡ predisposing factors ⚡ include heredity, age, gender, environment, and lifestyle. Heredity is a ⚡ predisposing factor ⚡ when a trait inherited from a parent puts an individual at risk for certain diseases. Cystic fibrosis (ICD-9: 277.00), sickle cell anemia (ICD-9: 282.60), and Down syndrome (ICD-9: 758.0) are examples of hereditary diseases related to genetic abnormalities. If hereditary risks

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Risk factors in health and disease

Introduction Health and wellbeing are affected by many factors – those linked to poor health, disability, disease or death, are known as risk factors. A risk factor is a characteristic, condition, or behaviour that increases the likelihood of getting a disease or injury. Risk factors are often presented individually, however in practice they do not occur alone. They often coexist and interact with one another. For example, physical inactivity will, over time, cause weight gain, high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. Together, these

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Risk Factors for Cancer

It is usually not possible to know exactly why one person develops cancer and another doesn’t. But research has shown that certain risk factors may increase a person’s chances of developing cancer. (There are also factors that are linked to a lower risk of cancer. These are sometimes called protective risk factors, or just protective factors.) Cancer risk factors include exposure to chemicals or other substances, as well as certain behaviors. They also include things people cannot control, like age

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Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

Your chances of developing type 2 diabetes depend on a combination of risk factors such as your genes and lifestyle. Although you can’t change risk factors such as family history, age, or ethnicity, you can change lifestyle risk factors around eating, physical activity, and weight. These lifestyle changes can affect your chances of developing type 2 diabetes. Read about risk factors for type 2 diabetes below and see which ones apply to you. Taking action on the factors you can change can

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