8 Signs and Symptoms of Kidney Stones

What are kidney stones?

Kidney stones are hard collections of salt and minerals often made up of calcium or uric acid. They form inside the kidney and can travel to other parts of the urinary tract.

Stones vary in size. Some are as small as the period at the end of this sentence — a fraction of an inch. Others can grow to a few inches across. Some kidney stones can become so large they take up the entire kidney.

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A kidney stone forms when too much of certain minerals in your body accumulate in your urine. When you aren’t well hydrated, your urine becomes more concentrated with higher levels of certain minerals. When mineral levels are higher, it’s more likely that a kidney stone will form.

About 1 out of every 11 people in the United States will get a kidney stone. Stones are more common in men, people who are obese, and those who have diabetes

Smaller kidney stones that remain in the kidney often don’t cause any symptoms. You might not notice anything is amiss until the stone moves into your ureter — the tube that urine travels through to get from your kidney to your bladder.

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Kidney stones are typically very painful. Most stones will pass on their own without treatment. However, you may need a procedure to break up or remove stones that don’t pass.

Here are eight signs and symptoms that you may have kidney stones.

1. Pain in the back, belly, or side

Kidney stone pain — also known as renal colic — is one of the most severe types of pain imaginable. Some people who’ve experienced kidney stones compare the pain to childbirth or getting stabbed with a knife.

The pain is intense enough to account for more than 1 million visits to emergency rooms each year.

Usually the pain starts when a stone moves into the narrow ureter. This causes a blockage, which makes pressure build up in the kidney.

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The pressure activates nerve fibers that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Kidney stone pain often starts suddenly. As the stone moves, the pain changes location and intensity.

Pain often comes and goes in waves, which is made worse by the ureters contracting as they try to push the stone out. Each wave may last for a few minutes, disappear, and then come back again.

You’ll feel the pain along your side and back, below your ribs. It may radiate to your belly and groin area as the stone moves down through your urinary tract.

Large stones can be more painful than small ones, but the severity of pain doesn’t necessarily relate to the size of the stone. Even a little stone can be painful as it moves or causes a blockage.

Once the stone reaches the junction between the ureter and bladder, you’ll start to feel pain when you urinate. Your doctor might call this dysuria.

The pain can feel sharp or burning. If you don’t know you have a kidney stone, you might mistake it for a urinary tract infection. Sometimes you can have an infection along with the stone.

4. Blood in the urine

Blood in the urine is a common symptom in people with urinary tract stones. This symptom is also called hematuria.

The blood can be red, pink, or brown. Sometimes the blood cells are too small to see without a microscope (called microscopic hematuria), but your doctor can test for this symptom.

5. Cloudy or smelly urine

Healthy urine is clear and doesn’t have a strong odor. Cloudy or foul-smelling urine could be a sign of an infection in your kidneys or another part of your urinary tract.

One study found that about 8 percent of people with acute kidney stones had a urinary tract infection.

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Cloudiness is a sign of pus in the urine, or pyuria. The smell can come from the bacteria that cause urinary tract infections. An odor may also come from urine that’s more concentrated than normal.

6. Going a small amount at a time

Large kidney stones sometimes get stuck in a ureter. This blockage can slow or stop the flow of urine.

If you have a blockage, you may only urinate a little bit each time you go. Urine flow that stops entirely is a medical emergency.

8. Fever and chills

Fever and chills are signs that you have an infection in your kidney or another part of your urinary tract. This can be a serious complication to a kidney stone. It can also be a sign of other serious problems besides kidney stones. Any fever with pain requires urgent medical attention.

Fevers that occur with an infection are usually high — 100.4˚F (38˚C) or more. Chills or shivering often occur along with the fever.

The bottom line

Kidney stones are hard collections of salt and minerals that form in your kidneys and can travel to other parts of your urinary system.

READ:   Renal Calculi (Uroliths or Kidney stones)

Stones cause symptoms like pain, trouble urinating, cloudy or smelly urine, nausea and vomiting.

Some stones will pass on their own. Others need treatment with sound waves or surgery to break them up or remove them.

Call your doctor if you have any symptoms of kidney stones. Get medical help right away if you have these symptoms, which could indicate that you have an infection or other serious complication:

  • pain so severe that you can’t get comfortable
  • nausea, vomiting, fever, or chills with the pain
  • blood in your urine
  • trouble urinating
Acute Tubular Necrosis ICD-9: 584.5 Description Acute tubular necrosis is the rapid destruction or degeneration of the tubular segments of nephrons in the kidneys. The disease is characterized by a sudden deterioration in renal function, with resulting accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in the body. Impaired or interrupted renal function from acute tubular necrosis is considered reversible. Etiology The majority of cases of acute tubular necrosis are due to renal ischemia, or the interruption or impairment of blood flow in and out of the kidneys. This disease is the most common cause of acute renal failure in critically ill persons. Although there can be numerous causes for such impairment, renal ischemia leading to acute tubular necrosis is most frequently produced by severe bodily trauma or as a complication following surgery. The renal tubules also can be damaged in other ways. Acute tubular necrosis may be toxin induced (as a result of exposure to solvents, heavy metals, or certain medication...
Kidney Stones What are kidney stones? Kidney stones, or renal calculi, are solid masses made of crystals. Kidney stones usually originate in your kidneys. However, they can develop anywhere along your urinary tract, which consists of these parts: kidneys ureters bladder urethra Kidney stones are one of the most painful medical conditions. The causes of kidney stones vary according to the type of stone. Types of kidney stones Not all kidney stones are made up of the same crystals. The different types of kidney stones include: Calcium Calcium stones are the most common. They’re often made of calcium oxalate (though they can consist of calcium phosphate or maleate). Eating fewer oxalate-rich foods can reduce your risk of developing this type of stone. High-oxalate foods include: potato chips peanuts chocolate beets spinach However, even though some kidney stones are made of calcium, getting enough calcium in your diet can prevent stones from forming. U...
Polycystic Kidney disease ICD-9: 753.12 Description Polycystic kidney disease is a developmental defect of the collecting tubules in the cortex of the kidneys. Groups of tubules that fail to empty properly into the renal pelvis slowly swell into multiple, grapelike, fluid-filled sacs or cysts. The pressure from the expanding cysts slowly destroys adjacent normal tissue, progressively impairing kidney function. Both kidneys are usually affected and are grossly enlarged. Polycystic kidney disease is one of the most common hereditary diseases in the United States, affecting more than 600,000 people. It is the cause of nearly 10% of end-stage renal disease and affects men, women, and all races equally. Etiology There are two forms of the disease, each due to a genetic defect. The more common adult form, usually manifested during midlife, is an autosomal dominant defect. The much less common infant and childhood forms, manifested at birth or during childhood, are autosomal recessive defects. The followin...
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