Adenoid hyperplasia

ICD-9: 474.12


Adenoid hyperplasia is the enlargement of the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx, causing partial breathing blockage.


The cause is essentially unknown. Circumstances that may cause the adenoids to continue to grow when they normally would atrophy (approximately ages 5 to 8) may include repeated infection and nasal congestion, chronic allergies, and heredity.

Signs and Symptoms

The most common symptoms are chronic mouthbreathing, snoring, and frequent head colds. The child’s speech has a nasal quality.

Diagnostic Procedures

Diagnosis is usually made by visualizing the hyperplastic adenoidal tissue or by the use of lateral pharyngeal x-ray films.


The treatment of choice is adenoidectomy, often performed in conjunction with a tonsillectomy.

READ:   Sudden infant death syndrome

Complementary Therapy

No significant complementary therapy is indicated.


Explain in simple terms the surgical procedure to a child. Be sympathetic to both parents and child in preparation for surgery.


The prognosis is excellent with proper care and attention. If untreated, however, adenoid hyperplasia can lead to changes in facial features and complications such as otitis media, which carries an accompanying risk of hearing loss.


There is no specific prevention for this adenoid hyperplasia.

Sleep apnea ICD-9: 770.81 Description Sleep apnea is potentially dangerous and occurs when individuals’ breathing at night repeatedly stops and starts. The condition often is accompanied by snoring loud enough to disturb partners. There are three forms: obstructive sleep apnea in which the throat muscles relax, central sleep apnea in which the brain does not send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing, and complex apnea, which is a combination of both. It is more common in males and in older adults. Etiology In obstructive sleep apnea, when the muscles in the back of the throat relax, the airway narrows, and breathing temporarily stops. The brain senses the inability to breathe and causes the individual to awaken and take a breath. This occurrence may happen as many as 30 times per hour all night long. Repeated incidences cause the oxygen level in the blood to fall. Because sleep is so disturbed (even though most do not recall waking up to breathe), individuals may feel...
Pleural effusion ICD-9: 511.9 Description Pleural effusion is an excess of fluid between the parietal and visceral pleural membranes enveloping each lung. The accumulating fluid may be characterized as transudate, which has little or no protein, or exudate, which is rich in protein. Etiology Pleural effusion may occur regardless of whether there is a pathological process affecting the pleurae themselves. Transudative pleural effusions frequently result from congestive heart failure, hepatic disease with ascites, and peritoneal dialysis. Exudative pleural effusions more often are seen with inflammation of the pleura, TB, rheumatoid arthritis, pancreatitis, respiratory neoplasms, and bacterial pneumonia. Signs and Symptoms The person may be asymptomatic. When signs and symptoms are manifested, they may include cough, dyspnea, and chest or pleuritic pain. The symptoms of pleural effusion will typically accompany those of any underlying condition. Diagnostic Procedures Auscultation of...
Understanding ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is sudden, life-threatening lung failure. ARDS occurs when the alveoli become inflamed and filled with liquid, causing their collapse. Gas exchange ceases, and the body is starved for oxygen. ARDS is a syndrome rather than a disease. It most often occurs within 24 to 48 hours of injury or illness, and the intensity and duration varies from one person to another. The mortality rate ranges from 35% to 50%, in most cases as a result of underlying disease or mechanical ventilation complications.
Lung cancer ICD-9: 162.x Description Lung cancer comprises various malignant neoplasms that may appear in the trachea, bronchi, or air sacs of the lungs. It is the leading cancer killer in both men and women. According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), approximately 1 out of every 14 men and women in the United States will be diagnosed with cancer of the lung or airways at some point in their lifetime. There are two major types of lung cancer: non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). NSCLC is more common, and it generally grows and spreads more slowly than SCLC. The three main types are squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large-cell carcinoma. SCLC, or oat cell cancer, is less common, but it grows more quickly and is likely to spread to other body organs. Etiology Although the precise triggering mechanisms are not known, most lung cancers are caused either directly or indirectly by smoking, accounting for 87% of cases. Tobacc...
Thrush ICD-9: 111.20 Description Thrush is a yeast infection of the mucus membrane lining of the mouth and tongue. It is commonly seen in infants but occurs in individuals with diabetes, those taking antibiotics for a long period of time, individuals with poorly fitting dentures, and those receiving chemotherapy treatments. Persons with HIV or AIDS are susceptible, also. Etiology When the immune system is weakened, the small amount of Candida fungus normally living in the mouth grows unchecked and becomes a problem. The “sweet” saliva in the mouth of diabetics feeds the Candida, and long-term use of antibiotics destroys healthy bacteria that prevents its growth. Signs and Symptoms Thrush appears as whitish, velvety lesions in the mouth and on the tongue. The tissue underneath the lesions easily bleeds. The lesions gradually increase in number and size. It is painful to eat or swallow. Diagnostic Procedures Diagnosis is easily determined by a primary care provider or dent...