Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis

ICD-9: 491.21

Description

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a functional diagnosis given to any pathological process that decreases the ability of the lungs and bronchi to perform their function of ventilation. It is an umbrella term that includes pulmonary emphysema and chronic bronchitis. COPD affects 12 million Americans, and it is estimated that 12 million more are undiagnosed. It is a common cause of death and disability in the United States.

Pulmonary emphysema (ICD-9:492) is the permanent enlargement of the air spaces beyond the terminal bronchioles resulting from destruction of alveolar walls. As a consequence of this destruction, the lungs slowly lose their normal elasticity. Air reaches the alveoli in the lungs during inhalation but may not be able to escape during exhalation. Evidence suggests that some forms of the emphysema may be hereditary. In rare instances, emphysema is associated with a deficiency of a1-antitrypsin, a protein that plays a role in maintaining lung elasticity.

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Lung tissue with normal alveoli

FIGURE. (A) Lung tissue with normal alveoli. (B) Lung tissue with emphysema. (From Scanlon, VC, and Sanders, T: Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, ed 5. FA Davis, Philadelphia, 2007, p 352, with permission.)

Chronic bronchitis (ICD-9:491) is inflammation of the bronchial mucous membranes causing the lining to thicken and produce a chronically productive cough. It is characterized by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of bronchial mucous glands, damage to the microscopic hairlike extensions of cells lining the interior of the bronchi (bronchial cilia), and narrowing of the bronchial airways. The passageways become clogged with mucus.

Etiology

Other diseases that may lead to a diagnosis of COPD include chronic asthma, bronchiectasis, silicosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Smoking, prolonged exposure to polluted air, respiratory infections, and allergies are predisposing factors in this disease. Occupational risk factors include exposure to textile dust fibers and certain petrochemicals.

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Signs and Symptoms

COPD tends to develop insidiously, so no symptoms may be present initially until lung damage has already occurred. Later, a person may tire easily while exercising or doing strenuous work. The chest tightens and dyspnea on minimal exertion then develops. Chronic cough, chest tightness, and increased mucus production are exhibited. A chronic cough with sputum production is the classic symptom of chronic bronchitis. A client with chronic bronchitis may have only a minimal increase in airway resistance. As the disease progresses, the increase in airway resistance becomes greater. Weight gain due to edema and cyanosis, tachypnea, and wheezing may also be evident.

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A characteristic “barrel chest” is often seen in pulmonary emphysema. The appearance of the barrel chest is the result of lungs chronically overinflated with air causing the rib cage to stay partially expanded.

Two identifiers common in COPD are “blue bloater” and “pink puffer.” A blue bloater describes a person with chronic bronchitis whose body responds to the increased obstruction by decreasing ventilation and increasing cardiac output. This leads to hypoxemia (oxygen deficiency in the blood) and polycythemia (excessive red blood cells). Together with retention of carbon dioxide, individuals show signs of cardiac failure and are described as blue bloaters.

A pink puffer describes a person with emphysema who has the decreased inability to oxygenate the blood. The body compensates with lower cardiac output and hyperventilation, causing a reddish complexion and a “puffing” appearance when breathing.

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Diagnostic Procedures

A physical examination, chest x-ray, pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases, sputum analysis, and CT scan are the procedures used to diagnose COPD, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and chronic bronchitis.

Treatment

Treatment is aimed at preventing further lung damage, relieving symptoms, and preventing complications. Persons diagnosed with COPD should be advised not to smoke. Bronchodilators may be used to open the air passages in the lungs, inhaled corticosteroid medications can reduce airway inflammation and help make breathing easier, and antibiotics may be prescribed in the event of respiratory infections. Administration of oxygen may eventually be necessary. Diuretics may be required. Surgery is an option for some. Lung volume reduction surgery removes small wedges of damaged lung tissue, creating extra space in the chest cavity. A single lung transplant may work for certain people with severe emphysema. Either surgery, however, may not prolong life and has a number of complicated risks.

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Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation may be able to improve quality of life. The combination of education, exercise, nutrition, and counseling likely comes from physical therapists, respiratory therapists, physical fitness specialists, and dietitians who create a program for individual client needs.

Complementary Therapy

People with COPD need proper nutrition. So much energy is spent on breathing that ventilatory muscles can require up to 10 times the calories required of a healthy person’s muscles. The client should eat foods from the basic food groups and limit salt and caffeine intake. If the client is using oxygen, the cannula should be worn while eating. Proper diet will help clients feel better and enable them to better fight infection.

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CLIENT COMMUNICATION

It is essential for clients to avoid cigarettes, cigarette smoke, dust, air pollution, and workrelated fumes. Advise clients to avoid excessive heat, cold, and high altitudes.

Prognosis

The prognosis for COPD is difficult. The disease cannot be cured, and lost pulmonary function cannot be restored. However, COPD can be managed, controlled, and slowed. The degree of disability produced by COPD varies but tends to increase with time. The clinical development of COPD is described in three stages: (1) lung function is 50% or better, (2) lung function is 35% to 49% with a significant impact on health, and (3) lung function is less than 35% with a profound impact on health. Progressive diminution of pulmonary function leading to respiratory failure accounts for most deaths.

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Prevention

Prevention includes not smoking, especially if other family members have a history of the disease. Early diagnosis is helpful. Periodic physical examinations to evaluate the development of COPD are recommended. Such a chronic disease often calls for evaluation from a pulmonary specialist.

Pneumothorax (Collapsed lung) ICD-9: 512.8 Description A pneumothorax is a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. It typically results in atelectasis, the complete or partial collapse of the lung. One or both lungs may be affected. The condition is characterized as either spontaneous or traumatic. FIGURE. Pneumothorax. (From Thomas, CL : Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, ed 21. FA Davis, Philadelphia, 2009, p 1817, with permission.) Etiology Spontaneous pneumothorax is caused by the rupturing of a small bleb, commonly called a blister, along the surface of the lung. What causes these blebs to form is not known, but they tend to form near the apex (bottom tip) of each lung. Changes in atmospheric pressure (flying, scuba diving, mountain climbing) can put individuals at risk. Smoking marijuana is a risk factor when individuals inhale deeply, then slowly breathe out against partially closed lips, forcing the marijuana smoke deeper into the lungs. Pneumothorax also may be econdary to othe...
Silicosis ICD-9: 502 Description Silicosis, also known as grinder’s disease and potter’s rot, results from the inhalation of crystalline silica dust. Silica is a common mineral found naturally in sand and rock. Silica scars lungs and creates small, discrete nodules in the upper lobes of the lungs. As the disease advances, a dense fibrosis of the lungs develops, and emphysema with respiratory impairment may result. The disease is chronic and progressive. Etiology Silica exposure is common in mines and quarries and in a number of occupations, such as sandblasting, foundry work, ceramics, and glassmaking. The occupations most prone to silica exposure are mining, drilling, blasting, grinding, and abrasive manufacturing. Required exposure varies from 2 to 30 years; the average is 10 years. Signs and Symptoms The disease may be asymptomatic even though x-rays exhibit evidence of nodule formation. Dyspnea on exertion generally is the first symptom. A chronic dry cough that later turns p...
LEGIONELLA PNEUMONIA (LEGIONNAIRES DISEASE) ICD-9: 482.84 Description A Legionella infection is an acute bronchopneumonia disease. There are two forms of the disease: Legionnaires disease and Pontiac fever. Legionnaires disease is named after an epidemic outbreak of the illness that killed 34 people and sickened more than 200 attending an American Legion convention in Philadelphia in July 1976. The disease may be mild and self-limiting, as in the case of Pontiac fever, or may produce a pneumonia severe enough to be fatal. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), between 8000 and 18,000 people are hospitalized with Legionnaires disease each year in the United States. Etiology Legionella infection is caused by the gram-negative bacillus Legionella pneumophila. Other closely related bacteria within the genus Legionella also can produce outbreaks of the disease that are clinically indistinguishable from classic Legionnaires disease. The Legionella bacteria thrive primarily in warm aquatic environm...
ASTHMA ICD-9: 493.9x* Description Asthma is a respiratory condition marked by recurrent attacks of labored breathing accompanied by wheezing. Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes spasms of the bronchial tubes or swelling of their mucous membranes. Extrinsic asthma occurs when the bronchospasm is the result of an allergic response to environmental irritants. Intrinsic asthma is present when the client suffers attacks without evidence of allergic response. Extrinsic asthma is most common in childhood; intrinsic asthma more often begins in adulthood. Asthma affects 22 million Americans, of whom 6 million are children under age 12. Etiology The etiology of asthma is uncertain. There is often a family history of allergy and an individual history of hypersensitivity. Persons with asthma have very sensitive airways that react to “triggers” that cause asthma symptoms to start or worsen. Common triggers include upper respiratory infections; allergens, such as pollens...
Pleurisy (Pleuritis) ICD-9: 511.0 Description Pleurisy is inflammation of the visceral (inner) and parietal (outer) pleural membranes that envelop each lung. The saclike membrane enveloping each lung and lining the adjacent portion of the thoracic cavity or the pleura of one or both lungs may be affected. The two layers are lubricated with pleural fluid. The condition may be either primary or secondary and is often associated with pleural effusion. Etiology Primary pleurisy is caused by infection of the pleura by bacteria, fungus, parasites, or viruses. It can be the result of inhaled toxins or chemical fumes. The condition is often secondary to pneumonia, heart failure, pulmonary infarction, neoplasm, systemic lupus erythematosus, pulmonary embolism, and chest trauma. Signs and Symptoms The lung’s pain fibers are located in the pleura, so when the tissue becomes inflamed, the sharp stabbing pain can be so severe that it limits movement on the affected side when breathing. Clients often bel...