Common symptoms of eye diseases and disorders

Common symptoms of eye diseases and disorders

Individuals may present with the following common symptoms, which deserve attention from healthcare professionals:

  • Any visual disturbance or change in vision
  • Pain or burning in the eye and any of its structures
  • Eye redness
  • Photophobia
READ:   Refractive errors
Glaucoma ICD-9: 365.xx Description Glaucoma is a condition in which accumulating fluid pressure within the eye damages the retina and optic nerve, often causing blindness. The buildup of pressure occurs because more fluid, called aqueous humor, is produced than can be drained from the eye. The most common form of this condition, called open-angle glaucoma, results from obstruction of passages within the eye that form the trabecular meshwork, which drains the aqueous humor into the lymphatic system. In the United States, glaucoma affects 2% of the population older than age 40. The condition may be unilateral or bilateral. Etiology Primary forms of the condition, such as open-angle glaucoma, are idiopathic; however, a strong familial tendency toward developing this condition suggests that unknown genetic factors may be involved. Glaucoma also may arise secondary to a wide variety of other diseases, or it may be induced by certain drugs or toxins. Glaucoma most often occurs in adults o...
Age-related macular degeneration ICD-9: 362.50 Description Macular degeneration is a slowly progressive disease that produces changes in the pigmented cells of the retina and macula. These pigmented cells are more concentrated in the macula. The result is progressive loss of fine vision in one or both eyes. There are two types of age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD): the dry, or non-neovascular, form and the wet, or neovascular, form. The dry form accounts for about 90% of people with AMD. It is a slowly progressive mild vision loss. The wet form may come on abruptly and begins with proliferation under the retina. The vessels leak, hemorrhage, and form scars that produce significant central vision loss. AMD is the leading cause of new blindness in the United States, and it affects millions of elderly Americans. Etiology Macular degeneration usually is a result of the aging process. Risk factors include increasing age (60 years or older), hyperopia, light iris color, positive family history, hyper...
Blepharitis ICD-9: 373.xx Description Blepharitis is a common ulcerative or nonulcerative inflammation of the edges of the eyelids, involving hair follicles and glands that open onto the surface. It is classified into two types: Anterior blepharitis appears on the outside front edge of the eyelid where eyelashes attach. Posterior blepharitis appears at the inner edge of the eyelid that is in contact with the eye. It affects people of all ages, is not contagious, and generally does not cause any permanent damage to eyesight. Etiology Ulcerative forms of blepharitis usually result from infection by staphylococcal bacteria. Nonulcerative forms may be due to allergy or exposure to dust, smoke, or chemical irritants. The condition also may arise secondary to an increase in the sebaceous secretion (seborrhea) of the eyelids or pediculosis of the eyelashes or eyebrows. Signs and Symptoms The affected individual may experience burning and itching and the feeling of a foreign body in the ...
Keratitis ICD-9: 370.xx Description Keratitis is inflammation of the cornea. The condition usually is unilateral. Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH, Chief of Emergency Medicine, Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, reports that approximately 25,000 Americans develop infectious keratitis annually. Etiology Keratitis is most frequently due to infection of the cornea by herpes simplex virus (HSV), or certain bacteria, such as Staphylococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or fungi. The condition also may arise secondary to syphilis. Noninfectious keratitis may be caused by prolonged exposure to dry air or intense light, or it may result from corneal trauma. Signs and Symptoms Symptoms of keratitis include irritation, tearing, and photophobia. There may be redness of the eyelid and conjunctiva or mucopurulent discharge from the eye. When the cause is HSV-1, an upper respiratory infection (URI) with facial cold sores may be the precursor. When prolonged exposure ...
Cataract ICD-9: 366.xx Description FIGURE. Cataract. A cataract is an opacity, or clouding, of the crystalline lens of the eye or its surrounding membrane. The condition may be unilateral or bilateral. A cataract develops slowly, affecting visual acuity. It is very common, especially in older persons. Half of all individuals have cataracts or have had cataract surgery by the time they are age 80. Etiology Cataracts are caused by a change in the chemical composition of the lens so that there is a loss of lens transparency. These changes can be caused by aging (senile cataracts), eye injuries (traumatic cataracts), certain diseases (secondary cataracts), and genetic diseases such as myotonic dystrophy, neurofibromatosis, or birth defects (congenital cataracts). Signs and Symptoms A gradual loss or blurring of vision is the common symptom. Colors appear faded. Some people report seeing halos around lights, and some have problems driving at night because of glare from the lights ...