Deformities of the spine: Lordosis, Kyphosis, and Scoliosis

ICD-9: 737.20 LORDOSIS

ICD-9: 737.10 KYPHOSIS

ICD-9: 737.30 SCOLIOSIS

Video: How to Correct a Scoliosis With Exercise and Stretching

Description

⚡ Lordosis ⚡ is an abnormal inward curvature of the lumbar or lower spine. This condition is commonly called “swayback.” Kyphosis is an abnormal outward curvature of the upper thoracic vertebrae. Commonly, this curvature is known as “humpback” or “round back.” Scoliosis is an abnormal sideward curvature of the spine to either the left or right. Some rotation of a portion of the vertebral column also may occur. Scoliosis often occurs in combination with kyphosis and lordosis. These three spinal deformities may affect children as well as adults.

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Spinal curvatures

FIGURE. Spinal curvatures

Etiology

Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis may be caused by a variety of problems, including congenital spinal defects, poor posture, a discrepancy in leg lengths (especially in scoliosis), and growth retardation or a vascular disturbance in the epiphysis of the thoracic vertebrae during periods of rapid growth. Kyphosis may be the result of collapsed vertebrae from degenerative arthritis, or it may occur following a history of excessive sport activity. Obesity and osteoporosis can be contributing factors for lordosis. These three spinal deformities also may result from tumors, trauma, infection, osteoarthritis, tuberculosis, endocrine disorders such as Cushing disease, prolonged steroid therapy, and degeneration of the spine associated with aging. Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis also may be idiopathic.

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Signs and Symptoms

The onset of lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis frequently is insidious. Signs and symptoms may eventually include chronic fatigue and backache. Scoliosis is often detected by individuals when they notice that their clothing seems longer on one side than on the other. Or they may notice when looking in a mirror that the height of their hips and shoulders appears uneven.

Diagnostic Procedures

Physical examination and anterior, posterior, and lateral x-rays of the spine are the most commonly used procedures to detect these spinal deformities.

Treatment

Treatment varies according to the nature and severity of the spinal curvature, the age of onset, and the underlying cause of the disorder. The goal is to slow the progression of the disease. Physical therapy, exercise, and back braces may all play a role in the treatment of these conditions. Spinal bracing, if closely watched and properly constructed and fitted, may be able to halt the progression of the curve in scoliosis. Surgery may be necessary, however, in cases of adolescent scoliosis if the curvature seriously interferes with mobility or breathing. Spinal fusion, using bone grafts and metal rods, is sometimes performed to straighten the spine in this situation. Surgery is rarely necessary for correction of kyphosis. Analgesics may be prescribed to alleviate the pain that frequently accompanies these disorders.

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Complementary Therapy

Kyphosis may respond well to massage. Physical therapy and exercises to strengthen abdominal muscles can decrease lumbar lordosis. Hamstring stretch can reduce muscle contractures, or a permanent shortening of muscle. Stress proper posture. In scoliosis, it is helpful for individuals to turn their whole body, rather than just their head, when looking to the side; yoga is helpful to some.

CLIENT COMMUNICATION

Emotional support is essential. Instruct clients on the use of any brace and to avoid vigorous sports. Meticulous skin care is important to prevent irritation and skin breakdown due to the brace rubbing against the skin.

Prognosis

The prognosis of an individual with lordosis, kyphosis, or scoliosis depends on the underlying cause of the particular disease, how early it is detected, and whether it responds to treatment. In some cases, a spinal deformity may be arrested but not corrected. Pulmonary insufficiency, degenerative arthritis of the spine, and sciatica may arise as complications of spinal deformities.

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Prevention

Prevention of lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis includes correction of any underlying cause and maintaining good posture. Weight loss can reduce the risk of lordosis. Scoliosis screening in public schools is mandated by law in some states.

Lordosis

 

Hyperlordosis: Treatment, Prevention, and More What’s hyperlordosis? Human spines are naturally curved, but too much curve can cause problems. Hyperlordosis is when the inward curve of the spine in your lower back is exaggerated. This condition is also called swayback or saddleback. Hyperlordosis can occur in all ages, but it’s rare in children. It’s a reversible condition. Keep reading to learn about the symptoms and causes of hyperlordosis and how it’s treated. What are the symptoms of hyperlordosis? If you have hyperlordosis, the exaggerated curve of your spine will cause your stomach to thrust forward and your bottom to push out. From the side, the inward curve of your spine will look arched, like the letter C. You can see the arched C if you look at your profile in a full-length mirror. You may have lower back pain or neck pain, or restricted movement. There’s limited evidence connecting hyperlordosis to lower back pain, however. Most hyperlordosis is mild, and your back remains flexible. If the arch in your bac...
TREATMENT OF THE DERANGEMENT SYNDROME Of all patients with low back pain those having derangement of the intervertebral disc are the most interesting and rewarding to treat. As in dysfunction, it is essential in derangement that from the very first treatment correction of the sitting posture be achieved, but in the early and acute stages of derangement emphasis is placed on the maintenance of lordosis rather than the obtaining of the correct posture. Failure in this respect means failure of what otherwise might be a successful reduction of the derangement. So often it occurs that a patient describes a significant relief from pain and is visibly improved immediately following treatment, but later that same day after sitting for some time he is unable to straighten up on rising from sitting and the symptoms have returned just as they were before treatment. Usually the patient clearly understands the dangers of bending and stooping and carefully avoids these movements. But the hidden dangers of sustained flexion incurred in t...
Scoliosis: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. The normal shape of a person’s spine includes a curve at the top of the shoulder and a curve at the lower back. If your spine is curved from side to side or in an “S” or “C” shape, you might have scoliosis. According to the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), about 80 percent of scoliosis cases have no identifiable cause. The condition is often diagnosed during the first seven years of a child’s life. Common causes, when they can be pinpointed, are: birth defects neurological abnormalities genetic conditions What are the common types of scoliosis? The largest category of scoliosis is idiopathic scoliosis, a term used to refer to cases that have no definite cause. Idiopathic scoliosis is broken down by age group: infant: 0 to 3 years juvenile: 4 to 10 years adolescent: 11 to 18 years adult: 18+ years Of these, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common, according to the AANS. ...
Kyphoscoliosis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment What is kyphoscoliosis? Kyphoscoliosis is an abnormal curve of the spine on two planes: the coronal plane, or side to side, and the saggital plane, or back to front. It’s a combined spinal abnormality of two other conditions: kyphosis and scoliosis. Scoliosis causes the spine to curve abnormally on the coronal plane, meaning it twists sideways. Kyphosis causes the spine to curve abnormally on the saggital plane, meaning it twists forward or backward, similar to a hunchback. People with kyphoscoliosis have a spine that curves both to the side and forward or backward at the same time. This condition can occur at any age, including at birth. According to a case report about the condition, 80 percent of cases are idiopathic. This means there’s no known cause of the condition. Symptoms of kyphoscoliosis vary. Sometimes people with the condition may only have an abnormal hunch or slouch. In more severe cases, there can be negative effects on the lungs and heart. The muscles may not...
Spine Health. PROCEDURE 2 — LYING PRONE IN EXTENSION The patient, already lying prone, places the elbows under the shoulders and raises the top half of his body so that he comes to lean on elbows and forearms while pelvis and thighs remain on the couch. In this position the lumbar lordosis is automatically increased. Emphasis must be placed on allowing the low back to sag and the lordosis to increase. Fig. Lying prone in extension. Effects: Procedure 2 is a progression of procedure 1 and merely enhances its effects by increasing extension. Again, in derangement some time must be allowed to affect the contents of the disc and, if possible patients should remain in this position for five to ten minutes. In more acute patients sustained extension may not be well tolerated due to pain, and initially we must rely on the use of intermittent extension.