Kyphosis: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

What Causes Kyphosis?

Kyphosis, also known as roundback or hunchback, is a condition in which the spine in the upper back has an excessive curvature. The upper back, or thoracic region of the spine, is supposed to have a slight natural curve. The spine naturally curves in the neck, upper back, and lower back to help absorb shock and support the weight of the head. Kyphosis occurs when this natural arch is larger than normal.

If you have kyphosis, you may have a visible hump on your upper back. From the side, your upper back may be noticeably rounded or protruding. In addition, people with hunchback appear to be slouching and have noticeable rounding of the shoulders. Kyphosis can lead to excess pressure on the spine, causing pain. It may also cause breathing difficulties due to pressure put on the lungs.

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Kyphosis in elderly women is known as dowager’s hump.

Common causes of kyphosis

Kyphosis can affect people of any age. It rarely occurs in newborns because it’s usually caused by poor posture. Kyphosis caused by poor posture is called postural kyphosis.

Other potential causes of kyphosis include:

  • aging, especially if you have poor posture
  • muscle weakness in the upper back
  • Scheuermann’s disease, which occurs in children and has no known cause
  • arthritis or other bone degeneration diseases
  • osteoporosis, the loss of bone strength due to age
  • injury to the spine
  • slipped discs
  • scoliosis, or spinal curvature

The following conditions less commonly lead to kyphosis:

  • infection in the spine
  • birth defects, such as spina bifida
  • tumors
  • diseases of the endocrine system
  • diseases of the connective tissues
  • polio
  • Paget’s disease
  • muscular dystrophy
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When to seek treatment for kyphosis

You should seek treatment if your kyphosis is accompanied by:

  • pain
  • breathing difficulties
  • fatigue

Much of our bodily movement depends on the health of the spine, including our:

  • flexibility
  • mobility
  • activity

Getting treatment to help correct the curvature of your spine may help you reduce the risk of complications later in life, including arthritis and back pain.

Treating kyphosis

Treatment for kyphosis will depend on its severity and underlying cause. Here are some of the more common causes and treatments:

  • Scheuermann’s disease: A child may receive physical therapy, braces, or corrective surgery.
  • Infection: Your doctor will probably prescribe antibiotics for you.
  • Tumors: Typically, tumors are only removed if there’s concern for spinal cord compression. If this is present, the surgeon may try to remove the tumor, but frequently this destabilizes the bone. In such cases, a spinal fusion is often also necessary.
  • Osteoporosis: It’s essential to treat bone deterioration to prevent kyphosis from worsening.
  • Poor posture: You will not need aggressive treatments.
READ:   Kyphosis Exercises: Treat а Rounded Upper Back

The following treatments may help relieve the symptoms of kyphosis:

  • medication, to relieve pain, if necessary
  • physical therapy, to help build strength in the core and back muscles
  • yoga, to increase body awareness and build strength, flexibility, and range of motion
  • weight loss, to relieve excess burden on the spine
  • braces, especially in children and teens
  • surgery, in severe cases

Risks of untreated kyphosis

For most people, kyphosis does not cause serious health problems. This is dependent on the cause of the kyphosis. If kyphosis is caused by poor posture, you may suffer from pain and breathing difficulties. These will only get worse later in life.

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You can treat kyphosis early by:

  • strengthening the muscles of the back
  • seeing a physical therapist

Your goal will be to improve your posture long-term to decrease pain and other symptoms.

Spine Health. PROCEDURE 12 — ROTATION MANIPULATION IN FLEXION The sequence of procedure 11 must be followed completely to perform the required pre-manipulative testing. If the manipulation is indicated a sudden thrust of high velocity and small amplitude is performed, moving the spine into extreme side bending and rotation. Fig. Rotation manipulation in flexion. Effects: There are many techniques devised for rotation manipulation of the lumbar spine. When rotation of the lumbar spine is achieved by using the legs of the patient as a lever or fulcrum of movement, confusion arises as to the direction in which the lumbar spine rotates. This is judged by the movement of the upper vertebrae in relation to the lower — for example, if the patient is lying supine and the legs are taken to the right, then the lumbar spine rotates to the left. It has become widely accepted that rotation manipulation of the spine should be performed by rotation away from the painful side. This has applied to derangement as well as dysfunction, because hitherto n...
Spine Health. PROCEDURE 3 — EXTENSION IN LYING The patient, already lying prone, places the hands (palms down) near the shoulders as for the traditional press-up exercise. He now presses the top half of his body up by straightening the arms, while the bottom half, from the pelvis down is allowed to sag with gravity. The top half of the body is then lowered and the exercise is repeated about ten times. The first two or three movements should be carried out with some caution, but once these are found to be safe the remaining extension stresses may become successively stronger until the last movement is made to the maximum possible extension range. If the first series of exercises appears beneficial, then a second series may be indicated. More vigour can be applied and a better effect will be obtained if the last two or three extension stresses are sustained for a few seconds. It is essential to obtain the maximum elevation by the tenth excursion and once obtained the lumbar spine should be permitted to relax into the most extreme ...
Kyphoscoliosis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment What is kyphoscoliosis? Kyphoscoliosis is an abnormal curve of the spine on two planes: the coronal plane, or side to side, and the saggital plane, or back to front. It’s a combined spinal abnormality of two other conditions: kyphosis and scoliosis. Scoliosis causes the spine to curve abnormally on the coronal plane, meaning it twists sideways. Kyphosis causes the spine to curve abnormally on the saggital plane, meaning it twists forward or backward, similar to a hunchback. People with kyphoscoliosis have a spine that curves both to the side and forward or backward at the same time. This condition can occur at any age, including at birth. According to a case report about the condition, 80 percent of cases are idiopathic. This means there’s no known cause of the condition. Symptoms of kyphoscoliosis vary. Sometimes people with the condition may only have an abnormal hunch or slouch. In more severe cases, there can be negative effects on the lungs and heart. The muscles may not...
Spine Health. PROCEDURE 9 — ROTATION MOBILISATION IN EXTENSION The position of patient and therapist is the same as for procedure 7. By modifying the technique of extension mobilisation so that the pressure is applied first to the transverse process on the one side and then on the other side of the appropriate segment a rocking effect is obtained. Each time the vertebra is rotated away from the side to which the pressure is applied — for example, pressure on the right transverse process of the fourth lumbar vertebra causes left rotation of the same vertebra. The technique should be repeated about ten times on the involved segment and, if indicated, adjacent segments should be treated as well. Fig. Rotation mobilisation in extension. Effects: Also here the external force applied by the therapist enhances the effects on derangement and dysfunction as described for the previous extension procedures. The reasons for adding therapist-technique are the same as for procedure 7. In general, unilateral techniques are likely to effect unilateral...
TREATMENT OF THE DERANGEMENT SYNDROME Of all patients with low back pain those having derangement of the intervertebral disc are the most interesting and rewarding to treat. As in dysfunction, it is essential in derangement that from the very first treatment correction of the sitting posture be achieved, but in the early and acute stages of derangement emphasis is placed on the maintenance of lordosis rather than the obtaining of the correct posture. Failure in this respect means failure of what otherwise might be a successful reduction of the derangement. So often it occurs that a patient describes a significant relief from pain and is visibly improved immediately following treatment, but later that same day after sitting for some time he is unable to straighten up on rising from sitting and the symptoms have returned just as they were before treatment. Usually the patient clearly understands the dangers of bending and stooping and carefully avoids these movements. But the hidden dangers of sustained flexion incurred in t...