The ⚡ musculoskeletal system ⚡ consists of bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, and tendons. The skeleton gives shape to the body, provides physical support and protection for the organs, stores minerals, is responsible for blood cell formation, and provides sites for muscle attachment. The action of muscles holds the skeleton upright and creates physical movement of the body. First figure depicts the bones of the skeleton. Next figures illustrate the major muscles of the body. Any disease or disorder of this system greatly affects activities of daily living.

READ:   Bones


FIGURE. Skeleton (anterior view)

The skeletal system consists of bones formed from osseous tissue that provide structure and function to the overall body. Also included in the skeletal system is the cartilage that forms the joints between bones and the ligaments that hold bones together at the joints. Bones can be subdivided into long bones (arms, legs, hands, and feet), short bones (wrist, ankles, and knee caps), flat bones (ribs, sternum, shoulder blades, hip bones, and cranial bones), and irregular bones (vertebrae and facial bones).

Anterior view of muscles

FIGURE. Anterior view of muscles

The adult skeletal system has two divisions: the axial skeletal system and the appendicular skeletal system. The axial skeleton is the center portion of the body and includes the bones of the skull, hyoid bone, bones of the middle ear, vertebral column, and rib cage. The appendicular skeleton is composed of the bones of the appendages or limbs and includes the bones of the arms and legs, the shoulders, and the pelvic girdle.

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Posterior view of muscles

FIGURE. Posterior view of muscles

There are two types of bone: compact and spongy. Compact bone is the dense, hard tissue found in the shafts of long bones. Yellow marrow, which is composed of fat, is stored in these bones. Spongy bone, or cancellous bone, is less dense and is found at the ends of long bones and in the other bones of the body.

The muscular system holds the body upright and moves the skeletal system. Muscles have specialized cells for contraction wherein they shorten and pull a bone to produce movement. Muscle movement creates heat that helps to regulate body temperature.

READ:   The musculoskeletal system review

There are three types of muscles:

  1. Skeletal muscle is also called voluntary muscle because it is attached to the skeleton and its movement is consciously controlled. The cells of this type of muscle are elongated and have the ability to stretch and return to their previous shape.
  2. Smooth muscle is also called involuntary or visceral muscle because it is found in the walls of organs and its function is not consciously controlled. This type of muscle has shorter cells with tapered ends and cannot stretch as much as skeletal muscle.
  3. Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. This muscle is a combination of skeletal and smooth muscle. It is involuntarily controlled but has the ability to contract.
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Video: Anatomy and Physiology of Skeletal System

Video: Anatomy and Physiology of Muscular System

The musculoskeletal system review Key terms Term Meaning Musculoskeletal system The body system that provides support, stability, shape, and movement to the body Joint The point at which two (or more) bones meet. Cartilage Soft connective tissue found between joints Ligaments Connective tissue that attaches bone to bone at a joint Tendons Connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone Voluntary muscle Muscle that can be consciously controlled Involuntary muscle Muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system (not consciously controlled) Striated muscle Muscle tissue that has a striped appearance due to its fiber composition The musculoskeletal system In the musculoskeletal system, the muscular and skeletal systems work together to support and move the body. The bones of the skeletal system serve to protect the body's organs, support the weight of the body, and give the body shape. The muscles of the muscular system attach to these bones, p...
Musculoskeletal System Introduction The musculoskeletal system is composed of two systems – the muscular system and the skeletal system – but is commonly referred to as 'musculoskeletal' because of the main common functions of the said two systems, which are, movement and support. The musculoskeletal system is made up of hard and soft tissues. The hard tissue includes bones and cartilages (articular cartilages), while the soft tissues are the muscles, tendons, synovial membranes, joints capsule and ligaments. Primarily, the roles of the musculoskeletal system are movement and support, but the system also performs the following functions: Protection of vital structures Provision of body forms Stability Storage of salts (e.g., calcium) Formation and supply of new blood cells Essentially the skeletal part of the system pertains to the arrangement of bones, and how they join to one another to form joints which permit and limit specific movements. This part also outlines the factors tha...
Bones Anatomy Bones make up the skeletal system of the human body and are responsible for somatic rigidity, storage of different micronutrients, and housing bone marrow. They also produce red blood cells and the various forms of white blood cells and provide structural outline and movement. Of the two hundred and six bones in an adult human body, there are several types that are grouped together due to their general features, such as shape, placement and additional properties. What is a Bone? A bone is a somatic structure that is comprised of calcified connective tissue. Ground substance and collagen fibers create a matrix that contains osteocytes. These cells are the most common cell found in mature bone and responsible for maintaining bone growth and density. Within the bone matrix both calcium and phosphate are abundantly stored, strengthening and densifying the structure. Bone matrix - histological slide Each bone is connected with one or more bones and are united via a joint...
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