Spine Health. PROCEDURE 13 — FLEXION IN LYING

The patient lies supine with the knees and hips flexed to about forty-five degrees and the feet flat on the couch. He bends the knees up towards the chest, firmly clasps the hands about them and applies overpressure to achieve maximum stress. The knees are then released and the feet placed back on the couch. The sequence is repeated about ten times. The first two or three flexion stresses are applied cautiously, but when the procedure is found to be safe the remaining pressures may become successively stronger, the last two or three being applied to the maximum possible.

Fig. Flexion in lying.

Effects:

READ:   TREATMENT OF PAIN

Flexion in lying causes a stretching of the posterior wall of the annulus, the posterior longitudinal ligament, the capsules of the facet joints, and other soft tissues. As the movement takes place from below upwards the lower lumbar and lumbo-sacral joints are placed on full stretch at the beginning of the exercise as soon as movement is initiated. Thus, the procedure is very important in flexion dysfunction when shortening of posterior soft tissues has occurred.

The procedure should always be performed following stabilisation of a reduced posterior derangement. This ensures that no flexion loss remains after the patient has become symptom free. By keeping the patient in extension and avoiding flexion as healing takes place, we permit scar formation with the joints in a shortened position. This shortened position will be held by the scar as it contracts, the patient remaining painfree but unable to flex. Any attempts to perform flexion beyond the limits imposed by the contracting scar, will produce pain. Therefore, further flexion will be avoided and adaptive shortening gradually worsens.

READ:   Spine Health. PROCEDURE 11 — SUSTAINED ROTATION/MOBILISATION IN FLEXION

Flexion in lying performed regularly following reduction of posterior derangement allows the formation of an extensible scar in the midst of an elastic structure. Should we permit an inextensible scar to remain in the midst of an elastic structure, — the disc in this case — then sooner or later the patient will inadvertently move beyond the limitations of the scar, which results in further tearing of soft tissues and apparent recurrence of the derangement condition. This basic complication of healing exists throughout the muscular as well as the articular systems.

Flexion in lying also causes a posterior movement of the fluid nucleus and will be utilised in anterior derangement situations (Derangement seven) to reverse the excessive anterior position of the nucleus.

READ:   TYPICAL TREATMENT PROGRESSION — THE POSTURAL SYNDROME
TREATMENT OF EXTENSION DYSFUNCTION By far the most common form of ⚡ dysfunction ⚡ is that involving loss of extension. Having already explained and taught the postural requirements, we must now instruct the patient in the methods required to regain lost extension. We must explain to him the reasons for the need to recover the extension movement. The patient must realise that without an adequate range of extension it is not possible to sit with a lordosis, even when a lumbar support is used. For some patients it is imperative that the range of extension be improved, otherwise they will be unable to sit correctly. It is my experience that, following adequate explanation, patients will co-operate with the treatment and work hard at their recovery. They will perform exercises that cause discomfort or even pain, as long as they understand the reasons for doing so. Fig. Recovery of loss of extension, using the procedure of extension in lying. Exercises In order to systematically stretch the lumbar spine in extension, I...
Back Pain History Taking an accurate history is the most important part of the initial consultation when one is dealing with any medical or surgical problem. Unfortunately, when the mechanical lesion is involved there is still lack of understanding regarding the nature of the questions that should be asked, the reasons for asking them, and the conclusions to be drawn from the answers. I will set out step by step the stages that should be developed in history taking, and the questions that should be asked at each stage. Practitioners will already have their own method of history taking, and I do not suggest at all that they should alter their routine. However, I believe that the following questions must be included, if one is to reach a conclusion following the examination of patients with mechanical low back pain. INTERROGATION As well as the usual questions regarding name, age and address, one should enquire as to the occupation of the patient, in particular his position at work which provides us ...
Back pain. The Cause of Pain THE NOCICEPTIVE RECEPTOR SYSTEM Most tissues in the body possess a system of nerve endings which, being particularly sensitive to tissue dysfunction, may be referred to as nociceptive receptors. The free nerve endings of the nociceptive system provide the means by which we are made aware of pain. Wyke describes the distribution of the nociceptive receptor system in the lumbar area: it is found in the skin and subcutaneous tissue; throughout the fibrous capsule of all the synovial apophyseal joints and sacro-iliac joints; in the longitudinal ligaments, the fiaval and interspinous ligaments and sacro-iliac ligaments; in the periosteum covering the vertebral bodies and arches, and in the fascia, aponeuroses and tendons attached thereto; and also in the spinal dura mater, including the dural sleeves surrounding the nerve roots. The nociceptive innervation of the spinal ligaments varies from one ligament to another. The system is found to be most dense in the posterior longitudinal l...
Spine Health. PROCEDURE 12 — ROTATION MANIPULATION IN FLEXION The sequence of procedure 11 must be followed completely to perform the required pre-manipulative testing. If the manipulation is indicated a sudden thrust of high velocity and small amplitude is performed, moving the spine into extreme side bending and rotation. Fig. Rotation manipulation in flexion. Effects: There are many techniques devised for rotation manipulation of the lumbar spine. When rotation of the lumbar spine is achieved by using the legs of the patient as a lever or fulcrum of movement, confusion arises as to the direction in which the lumbar spine rotates. This is judged by the movement of the upper vertebrae in relation to the lower — for example, if the patient is lying supine and the legs are taken to the right, then the lumbar spine rotates to the left. It has become widely accepted that rotation manipulation of the spine should be performed by rotation away from the painful side. This has applied to derangement as well as dysfunction, because hitherto n...
Spine Health. PROCEDURE 15 — FLEXION IN STEP STANDING In this procedure the patient stands on one leg while the other leg rests with the foot on a stool so that hip and knee are about ninety degrees flexed. Keeping the weight bearing leg straight the patient draws himself into a flexed position, firmly approximating the shoulder and the already raised knee (both being on the same side). If possible the shoulder should be moved even lower than the knee. The patient may apply further pressure by pulling on the ankle of the raised foot. The pressure is then released and the patient returns to the upright position. The sequence is repeated about six to ten times. It is important that the patient returns to neutral standing and restores the lordosis in between each movement. Fig. Flexion in step standing. Effects: This procedure causes an asymmetrical flexion stress on the affected segments. It is applied when there is a deviation in flexion, which may occur in dysfunction as well as derangement. Both in dysfunction and derangement th...