Spine Health. PROCEDURE 5 — SUSTAINED EXTENSION

To apply a sustained extension stress to the lumbar spine an adjustable couch, one end of which may be raised, is a necessary piece of equipment. The patient lies prone with his head at the adjustable end of the couch which is gradually raised, about one to two inches at the time over a five to ten minute period. Once the maximum possible degree of extension is reached, the position may be held for two to ten minutes, according to the patient’s tolerance. When lowering the patient the adjustable end of the couch should slowly be returned to the horizontal over a period of two to three minutes. This must not be done rapidly, for acute low back pain may result.

READ:   TREATMENT OF THE POSTURAL SYNDROME

Fig. Sustained extension.

Effects:

The procedure is predominantly used in the treatment of derangement. The effect is similar to that of the third procedure, but a time factor is added with the graduated increase and the sustained nature of the extension. In certain circumstances a sustained extension stress is preferable to a repeated extension stress.

The centralisation phenomenon must be watched closely. Any suggestion that the pain is moving or increasing peripherally must lead to the immediate but slow lowering of the couch. It is interesting to note that an increase in central low back pain as the couch is lowered nearly always indicates a good response to the treatment, whereas when there is no increase in central pain patients tend to have little or no improvement following this procedure.

READ:   Spine Health. PROCEDURE 7 — EXTENSION MOBILISATION
Spine Health. PROCEDURE 4 — EXTENSION IN LYING WITH BELT FIXATION The patient’s position and the exercise are the same as in the third procedure, but now a fixating belt is placed at or just below the segments to be extended. The safety belt is the first simple external aid, used to enhance maximum extension. It does so by preventing the pelvis and lumbar spine lifting from the couch. Other methods of restraint may be used effectively, for example the body weight of a young son or daughter when exercising at home. Fig. Extension in lying with belt fixation. Effects: This procedure creates a greater and more localised passive extension stress than the previous ones. It is particularly suitable for stretching in the case of extension dysfunction, and is more often required in dysfunction than in derangement. In dysfunction some pain will be experienced in the small of the back while exercising, because contracted tissues are being stretched. In derangement the rules pertaining to the centralisation phenomenon must be observed, and the proce...
PAIN AND ITS TREATMENT MODELS Pain affects everyone at one time or another. Many diseases and disorders of the human body are accompanied by pain. It is feared by many people, as much as or more than the disease itself. What is pain? What purpose, if any, does it serve? What happens in the body when a person feels pain? How is pain assessed? What are the different types of pain? Can pain be treated? If so, how? These are some of the questions addressed in this chapter. Pain is an expanding science, and an increasing number of specialty clinics are emerging. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) identifies the following four models for pain treatment: Single service clinics are normally outpatient clinics providing specific pain treatment with the goal to reduce pain. These do not provide comprehensive assessment or management. Examples include a nerve block clinic and a biofeedback clinic. Pain clinics also are outpatient, but their focus is mainly on diagnosis and management of indivi...
GATE CONTROL THEORY OF PAIN What occurs at the cellular level when pain is experienced? The gate control theory of pain, by P. D. Wall and Ronald Melzack, offers a useful model of the physiological process of pain. Gate control is recognized as a major pain theory. According to the gate control theory, pain is a balance between information traveling into the spinal cord through large nerve fibers and information traveling into the spinal cord through small nerve fibers. Without any stimulation, both the large and small nerve fibers are quiet, and the substantia gelatinosa (SG) blocks the signal to the transmission cell (T cell) connected to the brain. The “gate is closed,” and there is no pain. With pain stimulation, small nerve fibers are active. They activate the T-cell neurons but block the SG neuron, making it impossible for the SG to block the T-cell transmission to the brain. The result is that the “gate is open”; therefore, there is pain. In other words, pain is experienced whenever the substances that ...
The Postural Syndrome DEFINITION I would define the postural syndrome as mechanical deformation of postural origin causing pain of a strictly intermittent nature, which appears when the soft tissues surrounding the lumbar segments are placed under prolonged stress. This occurs when a person performs activities which keep the lumbar spine in a relatively static position (as in vacuuming, gardening) or when they maintain end positions for any length of time (as in prolonged sitting). History Patients with postural pain are usually aged thirty or under. Frequently they have a sedentary occupation and in general they lack physical fitness. In addition to low back pain they often describe pains in the mid-thoracic and cervical areas. They state that the pain is produced by positions and not by movement, is intermittent and may sometimes disappear for two to three days at a time. It is often found that, when patients are more active at weekends — playing tennis and dancing — they have relatively little or no t...
The Intervertebral Disc STRUCTURE In the lumbar spine the intervertebral discs are constructed similarly to those in other parts of the vertebral column. The disc has two distinct components: the annulus fibrosus forming the retaining wall for the nucleus pulposus. The annulus fibrosus is constructed of concentric layers of collagen fibres. Each layer lies at an angle to its neighbour and the whole forms a laminated band which holds the two adjacent vertebrae together and retains the nuclear gel. The annulus is attached firmly to the vertebral end plates above and below, except posteriorly where the peripheral attachment of the annulus is not so firm. Moreover, the posterior longitudinal ligament with which the posterior annulus blends is a relatively weak structure, whereas anteriorly the annulus blends intimately with the powerful anterior longitudinal ligament. The posterior part of the annulus is the weakest part: the anterior and lateral portions are approximately twice as thick as the posterior port...