Deformities of the spine: Lordosis, Kyphosis, and Scoliosis

ICD-9: 737.20 LORDOSIS

ICD-9: 737.10 KYPHOSIS

ICD-9: 737.30 SCOLIOSIS

Video: How to Correct a Scoliosis With Exercise and Stretching

Description

⚡ Lordosis ⚡ is an abnormal inward curvature of the lumbar or lower spine. This condition is commonly called “swayback.” Kyphosis is an abnormal outward curvature of the upper thoracic vertebrae. Commonly, this curvature is known as “humpback” or “round back.” Scoliosis is an abnormal sideward curvature of the spine to either the left or right. Some rotation of a portion of the vertebral column also may occur. Scoliosis often occurs in combination with kyphosis and lordosis. These three spinal deformities may affect children as well as adults.

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Spinal curvatures

FIGURE. Spinal curvatures

Etiology

Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis may be caused by a variety of problems, including congenital spinal defects, poor posture, a discrepancy in leg lengths (especially in scoliosis), and growth retardation or a vascular disturbance in the epiphysis of the thoracic vertebrae during periods of rapid growth. Kyphosis may be the result of collapsed vertebrae from degenerative arthritis, or it may occur following a history of excessive sport activity. Obesity and osteoporosis can be contributing factors for lordosis. These three spinal deformities also may result from tumors, trauma, infection, osteoarthritis, tuberculosis, endocrine disorders such as Cushing disease, prolonged steroid therapy, and degeneration of the spine associated with aging. Lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis also may be idiopathic.

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Signs and Symptoms

The onset of lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis frequently is insidious. Signs and symptoms may eventually include chronic fatigue and backache. Scoliosis is often detected by individuals when they notice that their clothing seems longer on one side than on the other. Or they may notice when looking in a mirror that the height of their hips and shoulders appears uneven.

Diagnostic Procedures

Physical examination and anterior, posterior, and lateral x-rays of the spine are the most commonly used procedures to detect these spinal deformities.

Treatment

Treatment varies according to the nature and severity of the spinal curvature, the age of onset, and the underlying cause of the disorder. The goal is to slow the progression of the disease. Physical therapy, exercise, and back braces may all play a role in the treatment of these conditions. Spinal bracing, if closely watched and properly constructed and fitted, may be able to halt the progression of the curve in scoliosis. Surgery may be necessary, however, in cases of adolescent scoliosis if the curvature seriously interferes with mobility or breathing. Spinal fusion, using bone grafts and metal rods, is sometimes performed to straighten the spine in this situation. Surgery is rarely necessary for correction of kyphosis. Analgesics may be prescribed to alleviate the pain that frequently accompanies these disorders.

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Complementary Therapy

Kyphosis may respond well to massage. Physical therapy and exercises to strengthen abdominal muscles can decrease lumbar lordosis. Hamstring stretch can reduce muscle contractures, or a permanent shortening of muscle. Stress proper posture. In scoliosis, it is helpful for individuals to turn their whole body, rather than just their head, when looking to the side; yoga is helpful to some.

CLIENT COMMUNICATION

Emotional support is essential. Instruct clients on the use of any brace and to avoid vigorous sports. Meticulous skin care is important to prevent irritation and skin breakdown due to the brace rubbing against the skin.

Prognosis

The prognosis of an individual with lordosis, kyphosis, or scoliosis depends on the underlying cause of the particular disease, how early it is detected, and whether it responds to treatment. In some cases, a spinal deformity may be arrested but not corrected. Pulmonary insufficiency, degenerative arthritis of the spine, and sciatica may arise as complications of spinal deformities.

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Prevention

Prevention of lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis includes correction of any underlying cause and maintaining good posture. Weight loss can reduce the risk of lordosis. Scoliosis screening in public schools is mandated by law in some states.

Lordosis

 

Experimental Scoliosis Treatment The frequencies and energies encoded along with the subliminal and subliminal programming in this video will cause your spine to gradually shift and straighten out until you no longer have your condition, It is experimental so effects may not be as drastic but it should cause good changes and relief. Use as much as you need to. Safe for use by non scoliosis users as well.
Spine Health. PROCEDURE 17 – SELF-CORRECTION OF LATERAL SHIFT Having corrected the lateral shift and the blockage to extension, it is now essential to teach the patient to perform self-correction by side gliding in standing followed by extension in standing. This must be done on the very first day, so that the patient is equipped with a means of reducing the derangement himself at first sign of regression. Failure to teach self-correction will lead to recurrence within hours, ruining the initial reduction, and the patient will return the next day with the same deformity as on his first visit. I have discarded the technique of self-correction as described previously and instead I now teach patients to respond to pressures applied laterally against shoulder and pelvis. Initially, therapist’ assistance is required. Patient and therapist stand facing each other. The therapist places one hand on the patient’s shoulder on the side to which he deviates, and the other hand on the patient’s opposite iliac crest. The therapist applies pressure by squeez...
TREATMENT OF EXTENSION DYSFUNCTION By far the most common form of ⚡ dysfunction ⚡ is that involving loss of extension. Having already explained and taught the postural requirements, we must now instruct the patient in the methods required to regain lost extension. We must explain to him the reasons for the need to recover the extension movement. The patient must realise that without an adequate range of extension it is not possible to sit with a lordosis, even when a lumbar support is used. For some patients it is imperative that the range of extension be improved, otherwise they will be unable to sit correctly. It is my experience that, following adequate explanation, patients will co-operate with the treatment and work hard at their recovery. They will perform exercises that cause discomfort or even pain, as long as they understand the reasons for doing so. Fig. Recovery of loss of extension, using the procedure of extension in lying. Exercises In order to systematically stretch the lumbar spine in extension, I...
Back pain. The Cause of Pain THE NOCICEPTIVE RECEPTOR SYSTEM Most tissues in the body possess a system of nerve endings which, being particularly sensitive to tissue dysfunction, may be referred to as nociceptive receptors. The free nerve endings of the nociceptive system provide the means by which we are made aware of pain. Wyke describes the distribution of the nociceptive receptor system in the lumbar area: it is found in the skin and subcutaneous tissue; throughout the fibrous capsule of all the synovial apophyseal joints and sacro-iliac joints; in the longitudinal ligaments, the fiaval and interspinous ligaments and sacro-iliac ligaments; in the periosteum covering the vertebral bodies and arches, and in the fascia, aponeuroses and tendons attached thereto; and also in the spinal dura mater, including the dural sleeves surrounding the nerve roots. The nociceptive innervation of the spinal ligaments varies from one ligament to another. The system is found to be most dense in the posterior longitudinal l...
Low Back Pain. Contraindications Although it has been accepted throughout that all patients have received adequate medical screening, occasionally patients with serious pathology or mechanical disorders unsuited to mechanical treatment are encountered during routine examination. If in the examination no position or movement can be found which reduces the presenting pain, the patient is unsuited for mechanical therapy, at least at this time. The existence of serious pathology should be considered when the history states that there has been no apparent reason for the onset of symptoms; that the symptoms have been present for many weeks or months, and have during that time increased in intensity; and that they are constant; and the patient feels that he is gradually getting worse. On examination the pain remains exactly the same, irrespective of positions assumed or movements performed. Usually there is little loss of function if any, and postural deformity is not often seen. In addition to the examination finding, th...